The Ecological Survey of Central Arizona (ESCA) is an extensive field survey and integrated inventory designed to capture key ecological indicators of the CAP LTER study area consisting of the urbanized, suburbanized, and agricultural areas of metropolitan Phoenix, and the surrounding Sonoran desert. The survey is conducted every five years at approximately 200 sample plots (30m x 30m) that were located randomly using a tessellation-stratified dual-density sampling design. Study plots cover habitats throughout the CAP LTER study area ranging from native Sonoran desert sites to residential yards to an airport tarmac. Measurements include an inventory of all plants (identified to the lowest possible taxonomic unit, typically species), plant biovolume, soil coring for physicochemical properties, arthropod sweep-net sampling, photo documentation, and a visual survey of site and area characteristics. The objectives of the survey are to (1) characterize patches in terms of key biotic, physical, and chemical variables, and (2) examine relationships among land use, general plant diversity, native plant diversity, plant biovolume, soil nutrient status, and social-economic indices along an indirect urban gradient. A pilot survey was conducted in 1999, and the first full ESCA was conducted in 2000. The maiden survey in 2000 featured a suite of measurements, such as quantifying pollen from soil samples, measuring weather at the survey site, breakdown of organic matter, etc., that were not assessed in later surveys. The data set here includes a subset of data from the Survey200/ESCA focusing exclusively on measurements that were conducted during the year 2000 survey only, and were not continued in subsequent surveys. The focus of this data set includes: local climate at the time of surveying in the field, land use up to 100 meters beyond the survey plot boundary, breakdown of organic matter (as dowels and litter bags), and soil mycorrhiza. Survey 200 was the original name of the project, and it was renamed to ESCA following the survey conducted in 2015. Investigators interested in more recent survey data, or other variables measured as part of ESCA should search the data catalog for 'ecological survey of central arizona' or 'survey 200'.