The researchers considered the effects of agricultural land-use legacies on the distribution of non-native invasive plants a century after abandonment in a watershed in western North Carolina, USA. The study was conducted at the Bent Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) 15 km southwest of Asheville, North Carolina, USA, in the Pisgah National Forest. Forest sites that were previously in cultivation and abandoned ca. 1905 were compared with nearby reference sites that were never cultivated. The most common invasive plants were Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb., Microstegium vimineum Trin., and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Kuhman, Pearson, and Turner 2011). Disentangling the cause–effect relationships between land-use history, the biotic community, and the abiotic template presents a challenge, but understanding the role of land-use legacies may provide important insights regarding the mechanisms underlying the establishment and spread of invasive plants in forest ecosystems (Kuhman, Pearson, and Turner 2011). A total of 86 plots were established at Bent Creek Experimental Forest during the summer of 2006. Specifically, the study was conducted between June and August 2006. Half of these were established in historic agricultural plots and half in reference plots that were not formerly used for agriculture (pasture or rowcrops) based on the 1941 Forest Service Report by William Nesbitt and the appended land-use history map (History of early settlement and land use on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest Buncombe County, NC. 1941). Historic agriculture and reference plots were paired based on similarities in topography and bedrock geology (typically in relatively close proximity to one another). Within sites, two plots were established, one adjacent to the road and one 50 m away from the road (labeled as "A" and "B", respectively, in the "Plot #").