Forty 2m x 2m plots were set up in field D adjacent to the mammal exclosure for E001. Each plot contained individual plants of some or all of the following species: Artemisia ludoviciana, Lathyrus venosus, Amorpha canescens, Sorghastrum nutans, Poa pratensis and Panicum oligosanthes. Exclosures (2m x 2m x 0.7m) were built around each plot to either exclude or contain various herbivores. Eight treatments were assigned to these plots (5 replicates of each) after existing herbivores were killed: 1)Control (all above-ground herbivores excluded or killed with insecticide), 2)natural herbivore (no windowscreen on sides of exclosure but the lid was left to control for shading), 3)grasshoppers high density, 4)grasshoppers low density , 5)voles high density, 6)voles low density, 7)cottontail rabbits high density, 8)cottontail rabbits low density. Before adding herbivores, up to five individuals of each plant species in each plot were marked and measured for length of all leaves and stems. After one month and after herbivore treatments were applied, plants were re-measured to determine mortality or damage. Effects on other plant species and total biomass were determined by clipping a 0.1 m x 1 m strip of vegetation inside each plot. These samples were sorted to species, dried and weighed. For a list of treatments, see the treatment layouts in file trmte62.